1. Powdery mildew
Powdery mildew is a worldwide disease of wheat, the disease can encroach aboveground organs of wheat, mainly leaves and leaf sheaths.

Stage Characteristics
The early symptoms of wheat powdery mildew on leaves.
Early onset, leaf emergence 1 ~ 2mm white moldy, then gradually expanded to nearly round to oval white mildew, powdery mildew surfa-ce layer, the powder immediately fly in case of force or vibration.
The powder is a fungus mycelium and conidia. Later, the diseased portion mold layer becomes gray to light brown spots scattered on a pinhead-sized black grains point, that the pathogen cleistothecia.
Pathogenic characteristics
Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer Erysiphe graminis DC.E.graminis DC.f.sp.tritici Marchal Called Gramineae Brucella type wheat powdery mildew specialization, fungi belonging to ascomycotina. Hyphae parasitized, spread on the surface of host cells in the host epidermis fo-rmation inhaler absorb host nutrition.With the end of the conidiophores vertical hyphae, conidia string raw 10-20, oval, colorless, single cell, the size of 25-30 × 8-10 (μm), infectivity lasts 3-4 days. Sick parts causing small black spots which is pathogens cleistothecia, black ball, the size of 163-219μm, hypoplastic filamentous wire 18-52 pieces at outsider and 9-30 pieces asci in inside. Asci is oblong or ovate with 8 ascospores or sometimes 4. Ascospores is round to oval, colorless, single cell, monocyte, size 18.8-23 × 11.3-13.8 (μm).
Perithecia generally formed in the later growth stage of wheat or barley. and it will be cracked under appropriate temperature and humidity cond-itions to emits ascospores. Bacteria can't infect barley, barley powdery mildew also can't infect wheat. Wheat powdery mildew interacts with the host long-term in different geographical, ecological environment. It can form different races, toxic variant soon.
Transmission route
Bacteria can be conidiophore or ascospore and s spread by means of air flow to the susceptible wheat leaves. If temperature and hum-idity conditions are right, the bacteria grow germ tube which front enlargement formation appressorium, penetrate leaf cuticle, invade ep-idermal cells, the formation of haustoria. And mycelium will grow in vitro host, then conidiophores produce conidia, mature off,spread wi-th air flow, repeated infection. Germs in the later stages of sexual reproduction, cleistothecia will be formed in the flora.
The Germs on the conidia stage can get over the summer by Disseminated reproduction on wheat seedlings which is in areas of low te-mperatures, also through cleistothecia on plant debris in the dry and cold conditions summering. Bacteria overwinter in two ways, one is conidium form, or by lurking in the tissues of the host mycelium.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Azoxystrobin series.


2. Wheat anthrax
Anthrax diseased leaves of wheat.

Major damage parts
Sheaths and blades.
Symptoms
Leaves sheath suffer disease firstly, then brown lesions resulting in 1 ~ 2cm long oval spots. edges dark brown, middle brown, expansion strip along the veins grow rectangle brown spots, lead to withered yellow leaves. Infected leaves forming nearly round to oval lesions spot. Later, the diseased portion connected into one, resulting in leaves wither. Morbid places have a small black grains, namely pathogen acervulus. Stem produce spindle brown disease spot disease.
Morphological characteristics
Spore disc elongated, dark brown, born in the early sheaths buried under the epidermis. Later,the little black grain point break through the epidermis. The diameter is 50 ~ 200um, with dark brown setose, size 50 ~ 100 × 5 ~ 9 (UM, Straight or slightly curved. Conidiophores short, colorless to brown, septate, unbranched, single cell conidia colorless, crescent shaped or fusiform, size 19 ~ 29 × 3 ~ 5 (UM) Glomerella graminicola Polltis He Sheng said the small clump shell, is Amon ascomycetes fungi, rare under natural conditions. There are host specific bacteria, different bacterial strain cause different disease for wheat. Bacteria grow in temperature 25 ℃. Transmission route
Bacteria overwinter or oversummer in conidium form or by lurking in the tissues of the host mycelium, also propagate by attached on the seed. Sow the seed with bacteria , the root or stem of seeding contact with the bacteria soil, both can fall disease.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Azoxystrobin, Fludioxonil.


3. Macular leaf blight

Symptoms
Macular leaf blight major damage leaves, can formed separately yellow spot, sometimes mixed with other leaf spot.After leaves infected newborn brown spots, extended to elliptic to spindle big spots, size 7~30×1~6(mm)Central disease spot color deep, there is unconspicuous lines, edge boundary is not obvious, peripheral born yellow halo, late disease spots are fused, then lead to leaves turn yellow and dry.
Morphological characteristics
Ascospores colorless to brown, oblong, with 3 diaphragms , mediastinal 0 to 1, the size of 42 ~ 69 × 14 ~ 29 (um). Anamorph subtilis spores to light color, cylindrical, straight or slightly curved, rounded at the top, the bottom was snake-shaped taper, umbilicus cavity recessed from the wall of the diaphragm with 1 to 9, the size of 80 ~ 250 × 14 ~ 20 (um).
Transmission route
Bacteria with plant debris will overwinter in the soil or manure. The following year, ascospores are infected in the wheat growing period, the sick part produce ascospores and they will spread by wind and rain, finally cause disease and expand continuously.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Azoxystrobin, Fludioxonil.


4. Rust disease
Three kinds of rust disease for wheat: stripe rust, leaf rust and stem rust. Stripe rust major harms wheat. And leaf rust only infect wheat. Stem rust infects wheat, also can infect barley and some gramineous weeds.

Morphological characteristics
Wheat stripe rust: It’s the mainly for leaf, leaf sheath, stem and panicle or disease. Early in the disease appear chlorotic spot, after the formation of bright yellow powder blisters, summer spore. Summer spore is small, long elliptic, and vein parallel arranged into strips. The late long black, long and narrow shape, ambush in subepidermal strip pock, namely the telia.
Wheat leaf rust: Early onset appear chlorotic spots, reddish dye that emerged after the blisters (uredinium). Uredinium small, orange-brown, irregularly scattered on the leaves. Late in the back of leaf and stem grow on black broadly elliptic to oblong, buried under the epidermis in winter spores heap, it has a longitudinal tendency according to straw.
Wheat stem rust:
Mainly harm the stalk,leaf sheath, lamina and fringe. Urediospore pile is bigger, long elliptic to strip, reddish brown, Irregularly scattered, formed a large spot. They penetrate the leaf. Later, there will grow blister teliospore heap with long and narrow shape in the sick place.
Bacteria characteristics
Wheat stripe rust, uredospore unicellular, spherical surface with fine spines, bright yellow, spore wall colorless, with 6 to 16 germinate holes. Teliospore twins, clavate, flat or beveled top, separated at slightly constricted, brown, deep on the bottom and light on the top, color on shank.
Wheat leaf rust : Urediospores unicellular, spherical or nearly spherical surface with fine spines, orange and yellow, with 6 to 8 germinate holes. Teliospore twins, clavate, dark brown, flat on top, separated at slightly constricted, no color on shank.
Stem rust spores unicellular summer, oblong, dark orange, Central has four holes germination, cell wall of brown, with obvious spines. Teliospore twins, clavate or fusiform, dark brown, Separated slightly constricted , smooth surface, rounded or slightly pointed tip, brown on top of shank, nearly colorless on bottom.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Azoxystrobin series.

1. Aphid
Wheat aphid is a major pest of wheat, affect its photosynthesis and nutrient absorption, conduction.

Morphological characteristics
Wheat aphid infestation include two aspects: direct damage and indirect damage. Direct damage mainly referes Larvaes and imagoes absorb sap of leaf, stem, tender. Indirect damage refers to aphids can spread wheat virus when in infestation. Spreading BYDV(Barly Yellow Dwarf Virus) has the greatest harm.
Aphids rampant occurrence of intermittent, which is closely related to climatic conditions.long tube aphid like medium temperature and is not high temperature resistant, humidity should be 40% ~ 80%, while wheat schizaphis can resist to high temperature 30 ℃, humidity at 35% ~ 67% will be appropriate.
Symptoms
Focus on damaging fringe after rice heading to become abortive grain. Then result in reduction of output. It occurs all over of the word, major infect wheat and other gramineous crops and weeds. Many larvaes, imagoes often concentrated in leaf, stem, fringe to absorb sap. The wound small yellow spots first, after the streak, withered, whole plant becomes dry to die.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Thiamethoxam, Nitenpyram, Fipronil.


2. Gree wheat mite
Gree wheat mite are arachnids, acarina. Damaged for wheat mites mainly two kinds : Penthaleus major and brown wheat mite. Penthaleus major occur at between 37°C to 29°C winter wheat region; brown wheat mite mainly in northerly region, the latitude 34-43 degrees wheat producing areas.

Morphological characteristics
Penthaleus major (imago): Length 0.65 mm, width 0.43 mm, slightly rounded, dark red-brown. Four pairs of foot, the first pair longest, fourth, second one, second and third pairs are approximately equal length.
Brown wheat mite (imago): length of 0.61 mm, width 0.23 mm, oval, reddish-brown. Foot four pairs, orange red, the first and fourth pairs of legs particularly long.
Habits
Penthaleus major like damp, afraid of high temperature, dry, and exist in low-lying wet or dry shade, irrigated wheat land. In spring, their eggs mainly lay in wheat tillering stems clump or dry leaf base near the ground, and in fall, prolific eggs lay on wheat sweeding or the land of the root of weeds .
Brown wheat mite prefer warm, dry, mostly distributed in the plains, hills, mountains, dry wheat fields, generally easy to rampant disaster drought dry year. Imagoes like crawling, also can borrow wind spread. Summering winter diapause eggs have capability of resistance high temperature and humidity in summer and dry, cold in winter.
Symptoms
Two kinds of wheat spider major hazards wheat, harm for barley is light.Wheat spiders absorb sap of wheat seedling. Early, many small white spots occurs on leaves, later, wheat leaves turn yellow.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Emamectin benzoate series.


3. Wheat leafhopper
Wheat leafhopper is tenthredinidae. Hosted in wheat, barley and other grass weeds. Damage characteristics is that larvaes eat leaves, only left the veins in serious condition.

Morphological characteristics
Female imagoes length 8.6-9.8mm, drone 8-8.8mm, most of the black body slightly blue, pronotum, scutellum in the chest, wings substrate rusty red, slightly yellow transparent membranous wings, skull reticulate sculptured. Egg length is 1.8mm, kidney-shaped, smooth, pale yellow. Larval length is 18-19mm, cylindrical, thicker chest, abdomen peripheral thin sections with transverse wrinkles, head brown. Pupal length 9.3mm, early yellow-white, black-brown eclosion.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Thiamethoxam, Nitenpyram, Fipronil.


4. Wheat thrips
Mainly hosted on wheat, barley, rye, oats, sunflower, dandelion, foxtail, etc.

Symptoms
Larvaes and imagoes absorb the wheat grain filling stage milky slurry, resulting in wheat grain filling is not full or empty husks。Besise, they damage spikelets glume. Damaged glumes shrinkage or withered, yellow or dark brown, vulnerable to pathogen infection, induced rotten or corrupt.
Morphological Characteristics
Imagoes length 1.5-2.2mm, dark brown, 2 pairs of wings, the edge with long tassel hair, forewings colorless, only near base darker. Antennae 8, the third length is 2 times the width, the 3,4,5 section stem base is yellow. Eggs about 0.45mm, oblong, yellow, the larvaes is pale yellow, then changed to orange-red. Nymphal is light red, surrounded by raw white hair.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Nitenpyram, Emamectin benzoate, Thiamethoxam, Fipronil.

1. Siberia Cocklebur
Geographical Distribution: growing in the Americas and East Asia, most of Europe and some regions of North America; also the hillslopes, meadows, roadsides.
Its alias is Fructus xanthii, belongs to the annual herb compositae plants. Mainly damage to soybeans, corn, wheat, sunflowers, potatoes,etc. In south, mainly fruit trees. In addition it’s also the host for cotton aphid, cotton bollworm and other pests.

Morphological characteristics
Stout seedlings, Cotyledons oval lanceolate, succulent hypertrophy.Multi-branching stems erect, stout, with elongated spots, height 30 to 100cm. Leaves are triangular-ovate or heart-shaped, lobed or toothed edges, with strigillose on both sides. Flowers unisexual, light chartreuse, monoecious; male capitulum spherical, dense at the branch end; female capitulum oval, growth under the male inflorescence, the involucre hooked spines, there are two flowers.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Florasulam series.


2. Circium Japonicum

Morphological Characteristics
Herbs, stemless, perennial. All leaves basal, rosulate, petiolate, concolorous, green, smooth, with long multicellular hairs particularly along veins; petiole 1.5-4 cm, unwinged or with discontinuous wing; leaf blade ± narrowly elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, or oblanceolate, 8-21 × 2-6 cm, pinnately lobed to pinnatipartite; segments 7-11 pairs, ovate-lanceolate, elliptic, or broadly triangular, toothed; teeth with a 2-5 mm apical spinule or spine; terminal segment largest. Peduncles short. Capitula few to many, clustered in center of rosette. Involucre campanulate, 3-5 cm in diam., glabrous. Phyllaries in 3-5 rows, lacking wings and scarious appendage, all of similar length; outer and middle phyllaries narrowly triangular, 1.8-2.3 × 0.1-0.2 cm, pectinately fringed with 2-3 mm spinules, tipped with a slender ca. 5 mm spine; inner phyllaries ca. 2.5 × 0.2 cm, not spinulose. Florets bisexual. Corolla purplish red, ca. 2.3 cm, tube ca. 1.8 cm. Achene dark, ca. 5 mm. Pappus bristles dirty white to brownish, to 2 cm. Fl. and fr. Jul-Sep.
Distribution:
Forest margins, roadsides, fallow fields, flooded lands, fields, moist places by water.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Florasulam series.


3. Cleavers (or bedstraw)
Cleavers belongs to herbaceous perennid, There are about 300 species worldwide, marshes, wet woodlands of riverside and seaside.

Type
Cleavers leaf fine tooth crack, needle shape, 4 ~ 8 verticillate. Flowers small, fascicled, green, yellow or white.
Fruit is hard, round, two coherent together.
Cleavers and aparine are all over the Europe and naturalized in parts of North America
Asperula odorata has odor like new mown hay grass.

Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Florasulam series.