1. Soybean downy mildew
Downy mildew widely distributed around the world soybean production. But almost of them are not very harmful, if serious, could caused early defoliation, leaf withers, seed rot, and output reduction about 30% ~ 50%. Seedlings, leaves, beans can also be damaged.
Around florescence, air is humid, leaf back produces Gray mildew layer, finally diseased leaves turn yellow & brown and wither death. Leaves infected, the formation of small spots, later become brown spots, the mildew layer will formed on the back.
Legume damaged, the external no obvious symptoms, but the internal with thick yellow mildew layer,which are bacteria oospores. The harmed seeds are white without sheen and surface is with a layer of oospores in the form of yellow powder.

Pathogeny
Belongs oomycetes, peronosporales, oospore globose, brown, thick, smooth surface or protuberance. a sporangium on the top of, colorless, elliptic or ovate. The optimum temperature of morbidity is 20 ~ 22 ℃, below 10 ℃ or over 30 ℃ cannot form the sporangium, 15 ~ 20 ℃ is the optimum temperature of oospore formation. Occurrence conditions of humidity is also important, from July to August rainy and humid easily lead to disease, drought, low humidity, less dew is unfavorable morbidity.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Azoxystrobin series.


2. Soybean leaf spot

Pathogen characteristics
Pycnidia were buried in leaf tissue, loose or consorte, spherical, membranous, diameter 64 ~ 112μm. Conidia are colorless, needle-shaped, straight or curved, with the diaphragm 1 to 3, the size of 26 ~ 48 × 1 ~ 2μm. The optimum temperature of spore germination is 24 ~ 30 ℃, over than 30 ℃ no germination.
Transmission Route
Pycnidiospore and mycelium overwinter in diseased tissues or seeds, and will become the infection source next year. Seeds with bacterium will cause seedling cotyledons disease. The bacteria overwintered in plant debris will release the spores, spread by wind and rain, at first infection bottom leaves , later infection repeated spread upward. Infected leaves in the temperature range of 16 ~ 32 ℃, 28 ℃ is most optimum, the incubation period is 10 to 12 days. Warm and rainy, foggy night, dew formation lasts long, disease will be seriously.
Symptoms
Disease begins in the bottom of the blade and gradually expands upward. Cotyledons will be spots irregular, dark brown and germinate very small black spots. Euphylla spots are dark brown, lesion limited by veins were polygonal, diameter 1 ~ 5mm, If servious, the spots form big plaques, leaves turn yellow and fall off. Infected Stems and petioles form brown short strip lesions and infected pods grows irregular brown spots.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Azoxystrobin, Fludioxonil series.


3. Soybean rust

Basic information
The latin name of soybean rust is Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow. It belongs to Basidiomycotina fungi, mainly damages to soybean and the harmful parts are leaves, petioles, and stems.
Pathogen characteristics
Soybean rust is caused by fungi. This fungus is only living in host plants. The bacteria uredinium is round, rust-colored; uredospore is spherical or oval, pale brown, with 4 to 5 unobvious bud holes, size 22.4 ~ 35.2 × 14.4 ~ 25.6 (μm). Teliospore grows the back side of leaves, irregular, dark brown; winter spores is yellow to light brown, oblong, size 13 ~ 25 × 8 ~ 12 (μm).
Symptoms
Damaged leaves will withered in advance, plant growth and development have been seriously affected, generally resulting in soybean reduce production from 10 to 30%, if seriously, it will be 50 ~ 60%. Soybean rust major damage leaves, petioles and stems. Early, lesion is reddish brown dots, later, becomes round or irregular, dark brown spots, Leaf surface slightly upheaval, after burst, will spill out rust colored powdery spores. If seriously, leaves will yellowing,withered,falling, beans are not full. Later dark brown cancer spots will be formated on spots.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Azoxystrobin series.

1. Beet armyworm
Spodoptera exigua Hiibner is the scientific name of Beet armyworm, which belongs to lepidoptera, Noctuidae. Beet armyworm is one kinds of insect pests in worldwide distribution and intermittent to harm vegetable. Damaged that Welsh onion, celery, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, asparagus, spinach, amaranth, pepper, cowpea, cauliflower, broccoli, tomato, eggplant, cabbage, broccoli, spinach, carrots and other vegetables

Morphological Characteristics
Egg: Round steamed buns shaped, white, with the radial, ridgy lines on surface.
Larvae have different colors: green, dark green, brown, dark brown, abdomen side subspiracular line is yellowish white , sometimes pink. Imagoes are active in night and dormancy in daytime , mature ones drill into soil for silking and pupation.
Pupa length is about 10mm, yellowish-brown.
Imagoes body length 10 ~ 14 mm, 25 mm to 34 mm exhibition wings. Body gray brown, hind wing silvery white.
If serious, can eat mesophyll, onlyl left the veins, and even eat the stem cortex. Larvae can travel in multitudes with death feigning. In daytime, they hide in the low parts of plants or soil , while in evening go out and forage. 6 ~ 8 generations evey year, July and August have the largest quantity. In high temperature and drought years will be more, leaf vegetables damaged heavily.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Methoxyfenozide, Indoxacarb, Emamectin benzoate, Thiamethoxam, Fipronil.


2. Soybean pod borer

Basic Information
Soybean pod borer belongs to Lepidoptera, Olethreu-tidae.
Morphological characteristics
Imago: Body length of 5 to 6 mm, wingspan 12 to 14 mm, yellowish brown to dark brown. Male moth forewings is pale, 1 ponticulus, end of the abdomen is blunt. Female moth forewings are darker , 3 ponticulus, end of the abdomen is cuspidal.
Larvae: length 8 to 10 mm, milky yellow when newly hatched, turns to red to orange when ripe old.
Pupa: About 6 mm, red-brown. There are 8-10 jagged tail-slings at the end of abdomen,
Egg: Flat oval, about 0.5 mm, orange.
Symptoms
Diet single, major damages soybeans, the larvae eats beans in pods. At oviposition, imagoes have significant selectivity for the location, size, species of pods . Most eggs are in the pods and a few in the petioles, branches and main stem. Most of eggs on the tender green pods, a few on the old yellow pods. Normally, 1-3 piece on pods. Soybean pod borer species lay their eggs on hairy plants, the species of pod with long time podding , will be suffered heavily.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Methoxyfenozide, Thiamethoxam, Indoxacarb, Fipronil, Emamectin benzoate.


3. Soybean aphid

Basic Information
Soybean aphid belongs to homoptera, aphididae It sucks sap of soybean tender leaves, causing soybean leaf curling, stunted roots and pod reduced in branches. It can also spread the virus disease.
Morphological Characteristics
Imago: two types, winged parthenogenetic aphis and wingless parthenogenetic aphis. Winged parthenogenetic aphids: length 1.2-1.6mm, oblong, head, chest black, the amount of tumor was not significant. Abdomen yellow-green, black siphunculus, cylindrical.
Wingless parthenogenetic aphis: length 1.3-1.6mm, oblong, yellow or yellow-green, abdomen paragraphs 1 and 7 with a blunt conical protrusions.Siphunclus base gray, side half black, base slightly wider, with tegular lines.
Larvae: Nymph and imago basic shape is similar siphunculus short.
Symptoms
Imago and larvae are concentrated in the parietal bean plants,leaves, stems on sucking sap. Theformation of brown spots are harmless, severe leaf curling, withered, branched, dropped.Then cause the yield reduced.Soybean florescenceis is most vulnerable, it is also the period of output reduced.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Thiamethoxam, Fipronil, Nitenpyram.


4. Soybean leaf roller

Basic Information
Soybean leaf roller belongs to lepidoptera, pyralidae. Infestation of beans, black-eyed peas, beans, lentils, mung bean, red bean and other legumes. It is one of major insects of legume crops.
Morphological Characteristics
Imago: body length about 10mm, wing expanse 10-18mm, brown, with black lines on both sides of the chest.
Larva: 5 instars. Larvae,0.7mm, oval, pale green, and the last instar larvae body length 15-17mm, head and pronotum light yellow, chest plates with back spots, chest, abdomen, pale green. And valve ring is yellow.
Pupa: Length 12mm, spindle-shaped, brown.
Egg: oval, light green.
Symptoms
Larvae leaves rolled into a single tubular or nearby 2-3 leaves even stacked cylindrical and made of chewing them hidden in leaf tissue, so that the leaves were notch or perforation, the latter can eats pods or beans.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Thiamethoxam, Emamectin benzoate, Methoxyfenozide, Indoxacarb, Fipronil.

1. Acalypha


Morphological characteristics
Annual herbs, 0.2-0.5 m tall, monoecious. Branchlets pilose. Stipules lanceolate, 1.5-2 mm; petiole 2-6 cm; leaf blade oblong-ovate, ± rhombic-ovate, or broadly lanceolate, 3-9 × 1-5 cm, membranous, abaxially pilosulose along veins, adaxially glabrous, base cuneate, rarely obtuse, crenate, apex shortly acuminate. Inflorescences axillary, rarely terminal, unbranched, 1.5-5 cm, pilosulose, bisexual; peduncle 0.5-3 cm; female bracts proximal, 1 or 2(-4), ovate, cordate, accrescent to 1.4-2.5 × 1-2 cm in fruit, pilose, margin crenate; male portion distal, short to almost capitate, slender; bracts ovate, ca. 0.5 mm. Male flowers 5-7 per bract; pedicel ca. 0.5 mm; calyx segments 4, ca. 0.5 mm; stamens (7 or)8. Female flowers 1-3 per bract, sessile; sepals 3, narrowly ovate, 0.5-1 mm, pilose; ovary pilose; styles 3, ca. 2 mm, 5-7-laciniate. Capsule 3-locular, ca. 4 mm in diam., pilose and tuberculate. Seeds subovoid, 1.5-2 mm, smooth. Flower, from Apr-Dec.
Distribution
Grasslands, slopes, cultivated areas; below 100-1200(-1900) m. Throughout China except Nei Mongol and Xinjiang [Japan, Korea, Laos, Philippines, E Russia, Vietnam; naturalized in Australia and India, etc.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Glyphosate series.


2. Digitaria sanguinalis
Digitaria sanguinalis belongs to Gramineae, annual herbs

Morphological characteristics
Digitaria Sanguinalis, height 40-100cm, diameter 2-3mm. Ligule length 1-3mm; leaves linear lanceolate, length 8-17cm, width 5-15mm, racemes slender, 3-10 pieces , 5-15cm in length, spikelet length 3-3.5mm, lanceolate, anthers length about 1mm. Fl. and fr. Jun–Sept.
Ecological characteristics
The germination is slow when temperature is below 20℃, while 25 - 40 ℃ is the best condition, seed germination optimum relative humidity of 63% to 92%; the optimal depth of 1 5cm. Digitaria sanguinalis flourish in the wet and fertile plots. From end of April to end of June is a large quantity, Aug to Oct, form seed and the mature ones dormancy. Digitaria Ischaemum was born in riverside, field, and is one of the important weeds in late spring.
Hazard rating
Malignant weed in dry land. The quantity, distribution range in dry land weed is the primacy, mainly damage crops during the medium-term growth. The mainly harm of corn, beans, cotton, peanuts, melon, potato, millet, sorghum, vegetables and fruit trees and other crops.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Glyphosate series.


3. Small Echinochloa

Basic information
It belongs to Cyperales,Gramineae,annual herb, similar as barnyard grass.
Morphological characteristics
Culms are 20–40 cm tall. Leaf blades often are involute, 0.2–0.5 cm wide. Inflorescence narrow; racemes short, erect, appressed to axis.Spikelets purplish, 2.5–3 mm, hispid along veins; lower lemma awnless or with a short awn. Distributed in streams, damp grasslands.
Symptoms
Mainly damaged the dry crops growing in the humid soil and matured in late autumn, such as cotton, soybean, cron etc. Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Glyphosate series.