1. Powdery mildew
Powdery mildew belongs to ascomycotina pyrenomycetes Erysiphales. The sick parts were mycelium bacteria and spores. Hyphae mainly spread in the lesion surface and used the haustoria into cells absorb nutrients. If it is serious, mycelium can sometimes enter the mesophyll tissue.

Pathogeny
The mycelium develops to a certain stage, can produce a large number of conidiophores and conidia, the disease is white powder. At the top of conidium, colorless, single cell, oval.
The mycelium of colorless transparent, much branched, diaphragm and slender, diameter of 2.5 ~ 5μm. Conidia, size 20 ~ 62.5μm × 2 ~ 5μm. Conidia on the conidiophores, colorless, single cell, wide oval to nearly cylindrical, size 20 ~ 31μm × 10.5 ~ 17μm.
Symptoms
Powdery mildew major damage seedling sprout, tree buds, shoots, leaves, flowers and young fruit. Damaged parts are covered with white powder the main features of the disease. Seedlings victimization, produce gray white patches on the leaves and tender stems, leaves, if serious atrophy of curly, discolored, withered and dead.
The damaged trees, bud withered and leaf thin, the harmed leaves long and narrow, hard and brittle, shrinkage distortion, even dying; flower buds damaged then flowers will deform, becoming narrow petals, atrophy. Harmed young fruit, and produced white spots on the top, then like rust.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Fungicide series.


2. Physalospora piricola

Basic Information
Physalospora piricola belongs to ascomycotina, a weak parasitic bacteria, weaken branches. Orchard extensive management, improper fertilization, especially partial nitrogen, morbidity is high. It ‘s mainly harmful for pear, peach, plum, apricot, chestnut, jujube, and other fruit trees.
Symptoms
Physalospora piricola mainly damage on the branches and fruit, leaf damage is rare.
Stems disease: Lesions is lenticels as the center, forming a flat round or oval shaped, red brown spot with diameter of 3 mm to 30 mm. Lesion generally only against the bark surface, if it's serious, still can invade the cortex, weakened the branches, and even cause branches gradually died.
Fruit disease: The morbidity of fruits are nearly mature and storage period. Harmed fruits are also lenticels as the center. Under optimal conditions, a few days can make the whole fruit rot, usually with a sour smell. Bacteria infect fruit more concentrated in 6-7 months. If the young fruit period coincides with the frequent rainfall, spore dissemination, infection will be more.
Leaves disease: Damaged leaves will formed will formed nearly round, brown spots, the size of 0.5 to 1.5 cm. Lesion gradually turned gray, and grow black pellets point. Many lesions on the leaves, often causing dry and early caduceus.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Fungicide series.


3. Downy mildew

Basic Information
Downy mildew is plant diseases caused by fungus of downy mildew. It is an obligate parasite, downy mildew very few have been cultured,caused the peronospora parasitica on cabbage downy mildew.
From seedling to harvest the disease can occur in all stages, the mature plants are suffered seriously. Mainly on the leaves, in the early onset, form shallow yellow nearly round to polygonal lesion on the foliage, when air is humid, leaf back produces cream mycophenolate layer, sometimes spread to the foliage. Later period, lesion will die contiguously, yellowish brown, similar to Verticillium wilt.
Transmission route
Two Types:
1. Localized infection. Point-onset lesions produced, in growing season produce sporangia constantly and re-infestation frequently, disease epidemics speed is very fast. Most downy mildew belongs to this type.
2. Systemic infection. After oospores invaded from plant buds, mycelium growing with host then damage the plant, disease epidemics speed is slowly, such as downy mildew of millet.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Fungicide series.


4. Rust disease

Basic Information
Rust disease is a plant disease caused by a fungus of rust parasite. It is widely distribution and huge harmfulness, mainly for cereals, legumes and pear etc.
Symptoms
Rust fungus usually cause local infection. Due to spore accumulated, the injury site produce small blisters with different color,some still can cause tumors in the branches, bark, and other symptoms or lead into deciduous, undergrowth etc. If it's serious when the spore is high intensive, plant will wither soon as a result of moisture evaporation.
Many crop rust is a worldwide, with tens of thousands of tons of yield loss. Rust fungus specificity and variability is that in the same kind of rust fungus can have different pathogenicities on the different plants. Such as the damage of cereal crops Puccinia graminis, there are at least 9 specialized forms; damage to wheat is one of the specialized type.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Fungicide series.


5. Gray mold

Basic Information
Gray mold is a fungal disease common found in open ground, protected area. It is difficult to control. It is low temperature and high humidity. Patpathogenic bacteria is growth in 20 ~ 30 ℃, temperature 20 ~ 25 ℃, humidity above 90%, this is called high morbidity disease.
Occurence regularity
Sclerotia overwinter and oversummer in the soil or plant debris , the temperature at 20 ~ 30 ℃. Bacteria resistant to low temperatures, 7-20 ℃ produce lots of spores, seedling greenhouse temperature is 15-23 ℃. Flowering were the easiest damaged by air, irrigation and farming operation from the wound, the aging organ invasion. In the case of continuous rain or cold windy weather, the density is too intensive, harm leaf, root by transplanting , all will aggravate the illness.
Symptoms
Gray mold is formed by Botrytis cinerea infected and it belongs to fungus diseases, flowers, fruit, leaves, stems can be damaged. Fruit damaged, petal first infected, then spread to fruit, resulting in pericarp was gray, and a thick layer of gray mold, just like a water rot.
Leaves were damaged from leaf apex first, along the veins spread to inner as the "V" shap, gray brown, there are shades of white striate lines on the edge.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Fungicide series.

1. Cabbage caterpillar
Cabbage caterpillar belongs to lepidoptera, pieridae. The host plans are brassicaceae, asteraceae, convolvulaceae, liliaceae, solanaceae, chenopodiaceae, amaranthaceae plants, etc.

Morphological Characteristics
Cabbage caterpillar is completely metamorphosis, divided fertilized egg, larva, pupa and imago four stages.
Egg: erect like bottle-shaped, about 1 mm high, the beginning of intrapartum light yellow, later turn to orange.
Larvae: length 28 ~ 35 mm, the larvae is grayish yellow when hatched at the beginning, turned green later.
Pupal: length 18 ~ 21 mm, spindle shaped, body color is green, pale brown, gray, black, winged white, scales dense powder.
Imago: chest densely white and gray and black long-haired.
Occurence regularity
Cabbage caterpillar are most active at soon in sunny days. Lifetime is 2-5 weeks. Spawning on cruciferous vegetables have a strong tropism, especially thick leafy cabbae and cauliflower with many eggs, prolific in the backs of the leaves in summer and winter prolific in front of the blade. In eggs scattered production, the larvae move slowly.
Symptoms
Cabbage caterpillar damage the cruciferous vegetables, especially for cabbage mustard,cauliflower suffer more seriously. Larvae eat the leaves into the notch and holes, if serious, the whole leaf is eaten, only remaining veins and petioles, the radix isatidis production will reduce.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Emamectin benzoate, Thiamethoxam, Methoxyfenozide, Indoxacarb, Fipronil.


2. Spodoptera litura

Basic information
Spodoptera litura is Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. It is a very complex gluttony insets and damages cabbage, other vegetables and crops.
Morphological characteristics
Imago: Body length 14-20mm, wingspan 35-41mm,dark brown, white tufted back chest, abdomen have dark brown tuft. Forewings brown, inner and other dash gray wavy, the middle three white twill, hind wings whithe.
Larvae: The mature larva length 35-50mm, divided into six larval instar. Dark brown head, chest and abdomen color changes, such as green yellow, taupe etc.
Pupal: Length 15-30mm, red-brown, the tail end of a pair of short spines.
Egg: egg flat hemispherical, yellow and white when newborn, and turns to light green, purple before hatching, with sallow fluff covered outer.
Symptoms
Cluster of newly hatched larvae infestation, 2nd instar feeding mesophyll gradually dispersed, after entering the gluttony of the fourth instar, 5-6instar larvae for 90% of total food intake. Larvae eat leaves, flowers, buds and fruits, fresh leaves into a hole or notch, if serious, it can eat up the whole vegetables in field.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Methoxyfenozide, Thiamethoxam, Indoxacarb, Fipronil, Emamectin benzoate.


3. Moth
Generally, larvae is cylindrical, pupa is a long fusiform, brown. Larvae drill into the fruit , pods or beans to eat fruit or seed. It is one of the major pests for fruit trees and bean crops. With a variety of types, will introduce four common types.

Plum fruit moth: belongs to leidoptera Tortricidae. Damage to apricot, cherry and peach trees. Generally it occurs 2~3 generations in a year, in the Mid to late of April will be in pupation, May spawning and laying eggs , borer fruit. For the early lots of damaged fruits will be fell or be mature and turn red in advance.
Larger apple fruit moth: Spilonota albicana Motsch It mainly damage to hawthorn, also other fruits tree. Larvae eat buds, leaves and decorated with silk leaves together into the volume inside the leaf for damage. Larvae bore into the fruit at the calyx fruit pulp insect damage on the surface, not deep. And emit large amounts of frass at the wormhole.
Peach fruit moth: Damage apple, pear, peach, jujube, hawthorn fruit tree etc. It is 1-3 generations a year. Larvae often reach into the fruit core, flesh eating, defecating in the tunnel, it is commonly known as”red bean paste”.
Pupal: Length 15-30mm, red-brown, the tail end of a pair of short spines.
Pear fruit moth: The larvae overwinter in the white thin cocoon, scale cracking, frass at the wormhole. During Spring germination, larvae damage to bud, flowers. When pear grow to thumb size big, eat into inside of the fruits. mature larva spins around the fruit stalk, and pupate in inside. At the end of May to mid June lay eggs on fruit calyx, larvae continue to harm the pear.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Thiamethoxam, Methoxyfenozide, Indoxacarb, Fipronil, Emamectin benzoate.


4. Red spider

Basic information
Cotton red spider belongs to Acarina ,Tetranychidae. It is not a spider. In the category, it is more closely with scorpion than centipede.
Morphological characteristics
Female imago mites: body length 0.48mm, width 0.32mm, oval shape, dark red or rust red, a pair of black spots on each side of dorsal.
Male imago: its dorsal looks like diamond-shaped, it is smaller than females. Body length 0.37mm, width 0.19mm; pale yellow in color. Larva mites has three pairs feet. Larva with 4 pairs of feet is similar with imago mites. Egg length 0.13mm, spherical, pale yellow, slightly red before hatching
Host crops: Maize, sorghum, millet, sunflower, mulberry, strawberry, beans, cotton, dates, citrus and jasmine, lilac, roses and other flower.
Symptoms
Larva and imago mites gather on the dorsal of leaves and draw sap. the leaves are grey-white or dry yellow spots, if serious, leaves will fall down. It badly affect plant growth.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Emamectin benzoate.


5. Spider mite

Basic information
Two-spotted spider mite belongs to cricket wax head, tetranychidae. Infestation of apple, pear, peach, apricot, plum, cherries, strawberries, grapes, beans etc.
Morphological characteristics
Imago: Male imago, 0.3mm long, 0.17mm wide, body color changeable, there ae dark green, brown,green, dark brown, orange and other colors. Female imago pear round, about 0.5mm long, 0.3mm wide, yellow-green or dark green, often with red or rust red.
Larva: the newly hatched larva is nearly imago, 0.15mm, yellow, red-brown, 3 pairs of feet. Larva molt into nymphs, oval, body color nearly imago, 0.3mm long, there are 4 pairs of feet, male and female can be distinguished.
Egg: Primiparous colorless, transparent, turns to pale yellow, yellow-orange when near hatching, diameter 0.13mm larva nearly round, about 0.15mm long.
Symptoms
It is a very serious insect for Vegetables and fruits. Often gather on veins on both sides of the blade on the back and spit strands mesh, sucking the sap of leaves under the net. Damaged leaves appear chlorotic spots and even become brown or reddish-brown, reduce photosynthesise, if serious, leaves will fall of early.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Emamectin benzoate.

1. Digitaria sanguinalis
Digitaria sanguinalis belongs to Gramineae, annual herbs.

Morphological Characteristics
Digitaria Sanguinalis, height 40-100cm, diameter 2-3mm. Ligule length 1-3mm; leaves linear lanceolate, length 8-17cm, width 5-15mm, racemes slender, 3-10 pieces , 5-15cm in length, spikelet length 3-3.5mm, lanceolate, anthers length about 1mm.Fl. and fr. Jun–Sept.
Ecological characteristics
The germination is slow when temperature is below 20℃, while 25 - 40 ℃ is the best condition, seed germination optimum relative humidity of 63% to 92%; the optimal depth of 1 5cm. Digitaria sanguinalis flourish in the wet and fertile plots. From end of April to end of June is a large quantity, Aug to Oct, form seed and the mature ones dormancy. Digitaria Ischaemum was born in riverside, field, and is one of the important weeds in late spring.
Symptoms
Malignant weed in dry land. The quantity, distribution range in dry land weed is the primacy, mainly damage crops during the medium-term growth. The mainly harm of corn, beans, cotton, peanuts, melon, potato, millet, sorghum, vegetables and fruit trees and other crops.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Herbicide series.


2. Echinochloa

Basic information
Barnyard grass is graminaceous annual herb. Its latin name is Echinochloa crusgalli. The leaf is similar with rice’s with glabrous leave sheath. It germinates in the paddy fields and damages for the rice growth. It can be edible or fodder.
Morphological characteristics
The stem is flat and erect with length 50—130cm, strip-shaped, glabrous leaf blade;smooth leave sheath without ligule and auricle. Panicles is Erect or bent; racemes are often branching; the flower head is reddish, purplish, pinkish or greenish. Caryopsis is beige and ovoid; elliptic, yellowish-brown seeds. it often germinates at wetlands or in water and is a common weed in ditches and paddy field around.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Herbicide series.


3. Purslane

Basic information
Purslane belongs to Portulacaceae, an annual succulent herb. It is usually glabrous. The plants prostrate, much branched,stems and leaves fleshy. Leaves small, obovate, thick and soft. Flowers pale yellow, usually 3 to 5 flower clusters in branch end, bloom at noon. It often grow in the garden or wasteland.
Morphological characteristics
Capsule ovoid, ca. 5 mm; seeds thin, slanting globose, dark brown, shiny, diameter less than 1 mm, tuberculate. Florescence May to August. Fruit period from June to September. Purslane has strong adaptability, heat-resistant, drought tolerant, for the requirements of the light is not strictly.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Herbicide series.


4. Chenopodium album

Basic information
Chenopodium album is herbs annual.
Morphological characteristics
15-150 cm tall. Stem erect, much branched, green or purple-red striate, stout, ribbed; branches oblique or spreading. Leaf blade rhombic-ovate to broadly lanceolate, 3-6 × 2.5-5 cm, 1-2 × as long as petiole, abaxially ± farinose, adaxially usually glabrous, or sometimes reddish purple vesicular hairy on young leaves, base cuneate to broadly so, margin irregularly serrate, apex subobtuse or acute. Glomerules arranged into large or small panicles or spikelike panicles on upper part of branches. Flowers bisexual. Perianth segments 5, broadly ovate to elliptic, abaxially longitudinally keeled, farinose, margin membranous, apex acute or slightly emarginate. Stamens 5; anthers exserted. Stigmas 2. Pericarp adnate to seed. Seed horizontal, black, sublustrous, lenticular, 1-1.5 mm in diam., lineate, rim margin obtuse. Flowering and fruits May-Oct.
Distribution
It probably grows throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. It is a difficult weed to be controlled.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Herbicide series.