1. Greensickness

Basic Information
Vascular bundle disease, the pathogenic bacteria mainly are Verticillium dahliae Kleb and Verticillium alboatrum. It belongs deuteromycetes Amon, Moliliaceae, Verticillium.The optimum growth temperature for Verticillium dahliae Kleb is lower than Verticillium alboatrum. Verticillium dahliae Kleb, as the host extremely wide, and strong ability to adapt to high temperature and ability to adapt to intense temperature changes, so almost cotton infected greensickness mainly is Verticillium dahliae Kleb.
Symptoms
Cultivation, from about 1 months after planting, symptoms occured on the ground part, the disease will be last until the end of the harvest. Firstly, the lower leaves partial wilting, leaf side curly. 2 - 3 days later, disease from yellowish white to yellow. Leaf margin discolor more, The veins as the center is wedge-shape. Next discolored parts gradually expanded, the whole piece of leaf yellowing, browning die slowly. Disease exacerbations, upper leaves were dead and lead to lower leaf chronic wilt. Therefore, plant height will be shorter, fruit set and growth significantly affected.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Azoxystrobin series.


2. Cotton brown spot

Basic Information
It belongs toimperfect fungi subphylum and occurs on cotton during planting period. A lot of brown spots appear on the leaves, if serious, will cause leaf abscission.
Morphological characteristics
Phyllosticta gossypina Ell .et Mart. and P. malkoffii Bubak. Cotton lobular point mildew: Conidia brown, is spherical 93.8μm x85.7μm. The top orifice dark brown, buried life,and exposed skin after the break. Conidia oval,born one at each end of the oil droplets,4.8-7.9μm X 2.4-3.8μm. Markov leaf spot, fungus, pycnidial spherical, dark brown,73.8-123μm, buried life and exposed skin after break, conidia elliptical, size(7.04-9.28) μm X (3.63-4.5) μm.
Symptoms
Major damage cotyledon and leaf. Cotyledons diseas, the early cotyledon emergence edges or other parts of the size of the tip purple dots, after expanding into intermediate brown, purple edges round to irregular spots were slightly elevated. Humid weather, therapid development of lesions, multiple lesions , maybe merging to form large irregular shaped spots, scattered among black pellets point, that bacteria pycnidia.Lesion center brittle, easily broken performation, severe cotyledon shedding. Damaged euphylla, growing tip-shape purple dots, turns large purple spots withthe edge of yellowish or brown.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Azoxystrobin, Fludioxonil series.


3. Cotton anthracnose

Basic Information
Cotton anthrax pathogen belongs to imperfect fungi subphylum. Sexual state is small clum of cotton shell Glomerella goss. Anthrax in cotton seedling disease, causing seedling blight.
Morphological characteristics
Acervulus. Dark brown, bristles, 2 to 5 diaphragms. Short Conidiophores arranged in shallow basin-shaped. Conidia oblong or truncheons bar, unicellular, colorless, size(9-26) μm X(3.5-7) μm, most aggregation, pink.
Characteristics: spore germination optimum temperature is 25-30℃,at above 37℃ or less 11℃, spores will not germinate. Suitable soil temperature onset of 24-28℃, relative humidity of 85% or more. Bacteria in the slightly alkaline conditions is well-developed, while at PH 5.8 or less will stop growing.
Symptoms
Cotton anthracnose could be occur each growth stage, seedling and boll stage will be most damaged.
Seedling: after germination, seedling disease can cause pre-emergence rotten kind of victimization, not unearthed and death. Seeding emergence, stem base appear reddish-brown to purple-brown streak, after expanding brown, slightly sunken, sever dehyrathion diastema, lodging seedling death. Wet spots on the orange slime produced, namely conidia. Cotyledons disease, and more students semicircular borwn spots in margin, reddish brown after drying off the edge of the cotyledons incomplete.
Adult-plant stage: this stage the major damage bolls, leaves and stems are rarely sick. Leaf disease lesion was not the whole round , easy to dry cracking. Stems killed, reddish brown to dark spots black, round or elongated, central depression skin breakdown, often exposed xylem, diseased case of wind easily broken. Bolls disease, newborn purple dot, then gradually expanded to round or nearly round brown spots, slightly sunken. Wet central lesions produced in slightly Physalospora orange and adhesive conidia group. Lesion can be interconnected to expand to full rings. Bell immature fibers within some or all of rot and become stiff dark yellow petals.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Azoxystrobin, Fludioxonil series.

1. Cotton aphid
Aphid is as the worldwide cottons pests, and also one of the important pests during cotton seedling. The host plants are pomegranate, pepper, hibiscus, Shu Lishu, cotton,melons and so on.

Basic Information
Aphis gossypii Glover winged or wingless. Wingless parthenogenetic aphids body length 1.9 mm. In vivo yellow, grass green to dark green. The black head, chest intermittent spots, abdominal 2~6 joint marginal spot, the eighth joint with 2 hairy. The surface with texture. Antenna is 0.63 times of the body length, 3 ~ 6 joint length ratio is 100 ∶ 75 ∶ 75 ∶ 43. 4 ~ 7 caudal hairy.
Morphological Characteristics
Wingless females body length less than 2 mm, yellow, green, dark green body etc. Antenna is about half as long as the body. The compound eye of dark red. Cornicle black green, shorter. Alate body length less than 2 mm, body yellow, light green or dark green. Antenna is shorter than body length. Firstly, egg orange and yellow, 6 days later to paint black, shiny.
symptoms
Damged cotton plant height will be shorter,leaves smaller and decreased, root shortened, flower bud delayed and number reduction, boll opening delay.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Nitenpyram, Thiamethoxam, Fipronil.


2. Cotton bollworm

Basic Information
Bollworm, scientific name is Helicoverpa armigera(Hubner), synonym name is Heliothis armigera(Hubner), Lepidoptera Noctuidae. Damage soybean, peanut, cotton, rice,wheat etc. It is a worldwide agricultural insets, also is the dominant inset for the cotton planting area during the Cotton boll period.
Morphological Characteristics
Imago: Body length 14-18mm, wingspan 30-38mm. Head ,chest and Forewing are schungite or light brown. Forewing is unclear, double subunite line, brown, jagged, ringed round, brown edge, there is a brown central point; Underwing is gray or brown, veins dark brown, wide rim at the elbow with light brown spots between the veins, ciliate gray, the base has a brown line. The latter part is not obvious.
Larvae: Most of them are 6 instars. For 1st instar, length 1.8-3.2mm, head width .21-0.28mm. Head pure black, pronotum reddish-brown; for 2nd instar, length is 4.2-6.5mm, head width0.38-0.46mm. Head dark brown or borwn; pronoutum brown, each side edge of the vertical lines appear a pale, light-colored surface, hip plate light gray triangle;for 3rd instar, head width 0.59-0.79. Head light brown, brown spots appear large and adjoining spots, hip plate light black brown; for 4th instar, length 10.4-16.8mm, head width 1.1-1.27mm. Head light brown with brown vertical stripes; for 5th instar, length is 16.5-29.0mm, head width1.44-2.06mm. Head small, often have board degenerate into small vertical stripes streak; for 6th instar, length 3.08-40.2mm, head width 2.56-2.80mm, head yellow, white textured significant pronotum white.
Pupa: Length 14-23mm, spindle. Early pupa is gray-green, green-brown or brown, pale red compound eyes.
Egg: Hemispherical, 0.44-0.48mm,taller than wide,vertical edges of the bottom longitudinal edges between the abdomen or short brown.
Symptoms
Larvae eat the leaves and harm notch; and damaged cotton bud will be yellow after open, there are wormholes in the bottom of damaged bud, size 5mm, aspheric, feces granular outside at bud. Bracts becomes brown after open and it will be shedding in 2-3days.And bollworm could eat up cotton leaves.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Indoxacarb, Fipronil, Emamectin benzoate, Thiamethoxam, Methoxyfenozide,.


3. Cotton red spider

Basic Information
Cotton red spider belongs to Acarina,Tetranychidae. It is not a spider. In the category, it is more closely with scorpion than centipede.
Host crops
Maize, sorghum, millet, sunflower, mulberry, strawberry, beans, cotton, dates, citrus and jasmine, lilac, roses and other flower.
Morphological characteristics
Female imago mites: body length 0.48mm, width 0.32mm, oval shape, dark red or rust red, a pair of black spots on each side of dorsal.
Male imago mites: its dorsal looks like diamond-shaped, it is smaller than females. Body length 0.37mm, width 0.19mm; pale yellow in color.
Larva mites: has three pairs feet. Larva with 4 pairs of feet is similar with imago mites. Egg length 0.13mm, spherical, pale yellow, slightly red before hatching.
Egg: 0.13mm long, spherical, pale yellow, slightly red before hatching.
Symptoms
Larva and imago mites gather on the dorsal of leaves and draw sap.
the leaves are grey-white or dry yellow spots, if serious, leaves will fall down. It badly affect plant growth.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Emamectin benzoate series.

1. Euphorbia pekinensis

Morphological Characteristics
Herbs, perennial, 40-80(-90) cm tall. Rootstock vertical, cylindric, 20-30 cm × 6-14 mm thick, sometimes branched. Stems single or clustered, 3-6(-7) mm thick, upper parts 4- or 5-branched, pilose or glabrous. Leaves alternate; stipules absent; petiole absent or nearly so; leaf blade very variable, usually elliptic, occasionally lanceolate, narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, rarely linear, 3-7(-9.5) × 0.7-1.7(-2.4) cm, both surfaces glabrous or abaxially pilose or pubescent, base subrounded or subtruncate for lower leaves, attenuate for upper leaves, margin entire or serrulate, apex acuminate or acute; midrib raised abaxially, often grooved adaxially, lateral veins inconspicuous, much varied. Inflorescence usually a terminal compound pseudumbel, sometimes much branched, sometimes with slender long pedunculate cymes or pseudumbels from axils below; primary involucral leaves 4-7(-16), leaflike but shorter, narrowly elliptic, base rounded, apex acute, primary rays 4-7, 2-5 cm; cyathophylls 2, base ± truncate, apex subrounded with micro-tip. Cyathium sessile; involucre cuplike, ca. 3.5 × 3.5-4 mm, lobes rounded, irregularly ciliate; glands 4, pale brown, rounded or reniform-rounded, entire. Male flowers many, exserted from involucre. Female flower: ovary pedicel 3-5(-6) mm, exserted from cup; ovary densely tuberculate; styles free, persistent but easily fallen; style arms 2-lobed. Capsule globose, ca. 4.5 × 4-4.5 mm, sparsely tuberculate. Seeds long globose, ca. 2.5 × 1.5-2 mm, dark brown or slightly shiny, adaxially slightly colored striate, sessile.Fl. May-Aug and Fr.Aug – Oct.
Distribution
Often growing at slopes, scrub, roadsides, fields, grasslands, steppes, sparse forests.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Glyphosate series.


2. Amaranthus retroflexus

Basic information
Amaranthus retroflexus belongs to Amaranthaceae, amaranth, annual herb.
Morphological characteristics
Stem erect, light green, 20-80 cm tall, stout, branched or not, slightly obtusely angulate, densely pubescent. Petiole light green, 1.5-5.5 cm, hairy; leaf blade ovate-rhombic or elliptic, 5-12 × 2-5 cm, both surfaces shortly hairy, but densely hairy abaxially, base cuneate, margin entire and undulate, apex acute or notched, with a mucro. Complex thyrsoid structures terminal and axillary, erect, 2-4 cm in diam., including many spikes; terminal spikes longer than lateral ones. Bracts and bracteoles white, subulate, 4-6 mm, apex slenderly long pointed. Tepals white, oblong or oblong-obovate, 2-2.5 mm, membranous, with a green midvein, apex acute or notched, with a mucro. Stamens slightly longer than perianth. Stigmas 3, rarely 2. Utricles light green, ovoid, compressed, shorter than perianth, circumscissile. Seeds brown or black, subglobose, ca. 1 mm in diam., obtuse at margin. Flowering Jul-Aug, fruit Aug-Sep.
Symptoms
It can damage to cotton, corn and vegetable gardens and orchards etc.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Glyphosate series.