1. Corn root rot

Basic Information
Pythium spp, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, Fusarium graminearum Schwabe.
Disease types: Fungi
The mainly damaged crop: Corn
The mainly damaged position: Root
Symptoms
Root rot caused by Pythium, the symptom mainly is in the mesocotyl and root gradually turned brown, soft, rotten, root growth severely retarded; plant small and short, leaves yellow, seedling death.
Root rot caused by rhizoctonia, lesions occurred mainly in the fibril and the mesocotyl and brown spots, gradually extended along the mesocotyl, girdling plumular axis and lead it to constricted, withered. If damged seriously, can lead to seedling leaves withered and yellow until plants die.
Caused by the Fusarium root rot, mainly for the roots of the young parts ends with deep brown rot, tissue gradually necrosis; Mesocotyl connected with lower grain browning, rotting; plant leaf tip yellowing disease severity when the cause plant death.
Incidence conditions
After the corn sowing encountered the rainfall, resulting in soil water, is susceptible to root rot. Under the general condition,the morbidity is low, will not cause serious production problems, but in special conditions, plant seedling death rate as high as 80%. There are many kinds of pathogen could cause root rot, disease characteristics are different.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Fludioxonil series.


2. Bacterial wilt

Basic Information
Bacterial wilt of corn, also called stem rot which is an important soil-borne fungi diseases mainly damage roots and the stems. Incidence rate is generally 10% to 20%,if serious, over 30%. Once with bacterial wilt , the whole plant will die fast, only 5-8 days, or even 2 to 3 days.
Aetiological agent
The pathogenic bacteria of Bacterial wilt is still controversial. The isolated bacteria is different from different places. There are major three points:
1. caused by the Fungus Fusarium;
2. Caused by Fungus Pythium;
3. formed by Pythium and Fusarium infection;
Symptoms
By various pathogens infection, bacterial wilt is caused roots and basal stem rot. It mainly occur in milk-ripe stage. At first, the leaves will be pustulate and dry with gray, like frost; hygrophanous rot will appear on the roots and stems. Later, the leaves will gradually turn to yellow, the roots and stems be brown. Besides, the stems will be soften,then leads to the plants lodging.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Fludioxonil series.

1. Pyrausta nubilalis

Basic Information
Imagoes, Brown, male moth body length 10-13 mm, wingspan 20-30 mm, brown dorsal, filamentous antennae, taupe, brown forewings, there are two brown wavy stripes, two lines between two brown short grain, brown hind wings; female moth similar morphology with male moths, lighter color, wing bright yellow, lined brown, light brown hind wings, abdominal obesity.
Damage and Distribution
Pyrausta nubilalis is a major pest of Cron. Around the world, spring, summer, autumn corn have different extent of damage, summer corn is the most seriously. Pyrausta nubilalis, can damage various parts of corn on the ground, and the injured part will lose some function, finally the output will be decreased.
Morphological Characteristics
Egg: Flat oval, scaly arrangement, the beginning is milk white, then yellow, part before hatching eggs to dark brown (as head of larvae, called black period)
Imagoes: Brown, male moth body length 10-13 mm, wingspan 20-30 mm, brown dorsal.
Larvae: Body about 25 mm long, cylindrical, black brown, back color is light brown, dark brown, grey yellow, etc.
Pupa: 15~18 mm length, yellowish brown, long fusiform, 5~8 seta on caudal.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Methoxyfenozide, Indoxacarb, Emamectin benzoate, Thiamethoxam, Fipronil.


2. Corn leaf aphid

Basic Information
Corn leaf aphid is an important pest of gramineae plant, mostly belongs to Homoptera Aphididae. The ability to adapt to the temperature and reproduction is very strong. It can breed about 20 generations a year. Aphids are mainly distributed in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and subtropical regions, tropical areas are rarely. There are already 4700 species knowd in world.
Morphological characteristics
Alate viviparous female: length 1.5 to 2.5 mm, head and thorax black, abdomen gray-green.
Apterous viviparous female: oval, dark green, black appendages, russety ommateum, red and yellow to dark green abdomen. Other features are similar with alate ones.
Symptoms
With widely host range, serious damage and spreading disease.
Aphids damage not only corn, sorghum, barley, millet, rice and other crops but weed, crabgrass, paspalum, reeds and other weeds. Imago and larva are sucking sap from plants, during seedling stage, mainly damage in leaves in center.At same time of damage, it will secrete "honeydew",formated a layer of black mold shaped substance on foliage, affecting crop photosynthesism, and reducing production.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Thiamethoxam, Nitenpyram, Fipronil.


3. Corn armyworm

Basic Information
Corn armyworm belongs to Lepidoptera, noctuidae. There are three generations a year. It is one of the main common pests damaged to corn crop.
Morphological Characteristics
Larvae: black eight-shaped stripes on vertex, brown to reddish-brown head , 2 to 3 instar larvae is tawny to brown, or dark red , 4th instar larvae over a black or dark gray. Due to five linea dorsalis, so called colored worms.
Imago: length 17 mm to 20 mm, grayish brown or yellowish brown, the color of the male moth will be darker.
Eggs: bread- shaped slightly shiny. It is white at primiparity and the color gradually deepened, nearly black when hatching.
Symptoms
Corn armyworm larvae edacity leaves, if serious, all leaves will be eaten in short time leading to reduce output or even without harvest. Mainly parasitized on wheat, rice, millet, corn and other cereal crops and cotton, beans, vegetable, etc.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: the series of Thiamethoxam , Emamectin benzoate, Methoxyfenozide, Indoxacarb, Fipronil.

1. Digitaria sanguinalis
Digitaria sanguinalis belongs to Gramineae, annual herbs.

Morphological Characteristics
Digitaria Sanguinalis, height 40-100cm, diameter 2-3mm. Ligule length 1-3mm; leaves linear lanceolate, length 8-17cm, width 5-15mm, racemes slender, 3-10 pieces , 5-15cm in length, spikelet length 3-3.5mm, lanceolate, anthers length about 1mm.Fl. and fr. Jun–Sept.
Ecological characteristics
The germination is slow when temperature is below 20℃, while 25-40℃ is the best condition, seed germination optimum relative humidity of 63% to 92%; the optimal depth of 1 5cm. Digitaria sanguinalis flourish in the wet and fertile plots. From end of April to end of June is a large quantity, Aug to Oct, form seed and the mature ones dormancy. Digitaria Ischaemum was born in riverside, field, and is one of the important weeds in late spring.
Symptoms
Malignant weed in dry land. The quantity, distribution range in dry land weed is the primacy, mainly damage crops during the medium-term growth. The mainly harm of corn, beans, cotton, peanuts, melon, potato, millet, sorghum, vegetables and fruit trees and other crops.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Nicosulfuron series.


2. Goosegrass
Digitaria sanguinalis belongs to Gramineae, annual herbs.

Basic Information
Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is annual herb, seed propagation. Mainly distributed in temperate and tropical regions around the world.
Morphological characteristics
Annual. Culms tufted, erect or geniculate at base, 10–90 cm tall. Leaf sheaths glabrous or tuberculate-pilose; leaf blades flat or folded, 10–15 × 0.3–0.5 cm, glabrous or adaxial surface tuberculate-pilose; ligule ca. 1 mm, membranous, at most sparsely ciliolate. Inflorescence digitate, racemes (1–)2–7, linear, ascending, 3–10 × 0.3–0.5 cm, one raceme often set below the rest. Spikelets elliptic, 4–7 mm, florets 3–9; glumes lanceolate, scabrid along keel; lower glume 1-veined, 1.5–2 mm; upper glume with small additional veins in the thickened keel, 2–3 mm; lemmas ovate, 2–4 mm, keel with small additional veins, acute; palea keels winged. Grain blackish, oblong or ovate, obliquely striate with fine close lines running vertically between the striae. flower and friut Jun–Oct.
Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Nicosulfuron series.


3. Green bristlegrass
Digitaria sanguinalis belongs to Gramineae, annual herbs.

Basic Information
Green bristlegrass (Setaira viridis) is annual herb ,growing hill slopes, roadsides, grassy waste places.
Morphological characteristics
It is Culms tufted, erect or geniculate, up to 70(–150) cm tall, 3–7 mm in diam. Leaf sheaths glabrous to papillose-pilose, margins densely ciliate; leaf blades linear to linear-lanceolate, flat, glabrous or papillose-pilose on both surfaces, base subrounded or subtruncate, margins scabrous, apex acuminate; ligule 1–2 mm. Panicle dense, usually cylindrical, usually tapering upward, 1–24 cm, erect or slightly nodding, branchlets bearing several spikelets each subtended by 3–7(–25) bristles; axis pilose or pubescent; bristles green, brown or purple, 4–12 mm. Spikelets elliptic-oblong, 2–2.5(–3) mm, obtuse; lower glume 1/4–1/3 as long as spikelet, obtuse or rarely acute; upper glume elliptic, as long as spikelet, lower lemma equal to spikelet; lower palea about 1/3 as long as lemma; upper lemma pale green, oblong, finely punctate-rugose, obtuse. Fl. and fr. May–Oct.
Symptoms
Green bristlegrass has Tenacious vital force and is the host for leafhoppers, thrips, aphids, cutworms, and many other small pests. Major damage to wheat, millet, corn, cotton, beans, peanuts, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, potatoes, nursery, fruit trees and other dry crops, resulting in reducing output.

Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Nicosulfuron series.

4. Purslane

Basic Information
Purslane belongs to Portulacaceae, an annual succulent herb.
Morphological characteristics
Purslane is glabrous usually. The plants prostrate, much branched,stems and leaves fleshy. Leaves small, obovate, thick and soft. Flowers pale yellow, usually 3 to 5 flower clusters in branch end, bloom at noon. It often grow in the garden or wasteland.
Capsule ovoid, ca. 5 mm; seeds thin, slanting globose, dark brown, shiny, diameter less than 1 mm, tuberculate. Florescence May to August. Fruit period from June to September.
Purslane has strong adaptability, heat-resistant, drought tolerant, for the requirements of the light is not strictly.

Solutions
CHICO has accumulated rich experience and could offer the corresponding high-class solutions, e.g.: Glyphosate series.